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SimCoupe - A SAM Coupe Emulator Version 1.0, released 21st July 2006 By Simon Owen <simon.owen()simcoupe.org> * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * INTRODUCTION SimCoupe emulates the SAM Coupe home computer - a Z80-based machine released in 1989 by Miles Gordon Technology. See the Links section at the end of this document for more information, including history and technical specifications. This release of SimCoupe was derived from Allan Skillman's SimCoupe 0.72 for DOS and Unix. It has been largely rewritten to improve accuracy and portability. Versions currently exist for Windows 9x/Me/NT/2000/XP/2003, Mac OS X, Linux, Pocket PC, BeOS, QNX, Solaris, DOS, Amiga OS 4 and the PlayStation Portable. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * LOADING SOFTWARE The SAM starts up ready to accept BASIC programs, with software loaded from tape or disk. The steps required to boot a disk on a real SAM are: 1) Press the reset button to Return to the start-up screen 2) Insert disk in floppy drive 1 3) Press F9 (or enter BOOT) to boot the disk The equivalent steps in SimCoupe are: 1) Press F12 to reset the emulated SAM 2) Press F1 to browse for a disk image 3) Press Numpad-9 or type BOOT and press Enter The default SimCoupe settings actually make the final step unnecessary - disks inserted into drive 1 at the SAM start-up screen are booted automatically. To boot a disk inserted at any other time, press F12 to reset then Numpad-9 to boot (Numlock must be On). Commercial titles will start automatically when booted, but some SAM disks found online may not. Here are the common failure messages: "55 Missing Disk, 0:1" There's no disk in drive 1 - did you insert into drive 2 instead? "19 Loading error, 0:1" The boot sector (track 4, sector 1) could not be loaded. The disk could be unformatted or may be damaged. "53 No DOS, 0:1" The disk does not have a valid boot sector, and cannot be booted. The default SimCoupe settings avoid this error by substituting an internal DOS image, so you're more likely to see the following error instead. "101 no AUTO* file, 0:1" DOS was booted, but no filename startig with "auto" was found to load. To avoid this error, boot using BOOT 1 instead, which loads DOS but doesn't attempt to auto-run any file. Try DIR 1 to list the files on drive 1, then LOAD n, where n is a file number to load. "0 OK, 0:1" DOS was loaded and an "auto" file was found, but there was no auto-run line number to execute from. Use LIST to check for a BASIC listing, and RUN to execute it. Otherwise use DIR 1 for a directory listing, to manually select a file to load. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * DISK IMAGES SimCoupe can use software in the following disk image types: MGT - Simple sector dump of +D/SAM disks: 2 sides, 80 tracks/side, 10 sectors/track, 512 bytes/sector = 819200 bytes. Compatible with the /dev/fd0u800 device under Linux. Traditionally named with a .dsk extension, but renamed to match the existing .mgt Spectrum image format. SAD - SAm Disk format, created by Aley Keprt. Also a simple sector dump, but with a 22-byte file header allowing disk-wide geometry adjustments to sides/disk, tracks/side, sectors/track and bytes/sector. Normal SAM disks stored in SAD format are 819222 bytes, but a difference in track order prevents removing the 22-byte header to give an equivalent MGT image. Version 2 SAD images are the same basic format, but compressed using gzip. SDF - Sam Disk format, created by Simon Owen. A stop-gap image format able to represent custom formats needed by copy-protected disks. Images sizes are 983040 bytes for 80 tracks or 1019904 bytes for 83 tracks. Soon to be phased out in favour of EDSK images. This format is read-only in SimCoupe. EDSK - Extended DSK images, originally designed for Amstrad CPC and Spectum +3 disks. A flexible format able to represent all existing SAM disks, and also the preferred format used by the worldofsam.org archive. Images size is directly linked to the disk geometry, with a normal SAM disk using 860416 bytes. Image files use a .dsk extension. TD0 - Images created by the TeleDisk utility for DOS, as used in the early 1990s. A very flexible format, but no longer used because the software doesn't work on PCs faster than a slow 486. Most TD0 images on the NVG FTP archive have now been converted to either MGT or EDSK formats. This format is read-only in SimCoupe. SBT - Sam BooTable files, created by Andrew Collier. These are self-booting files designed to be copied to an empty SAM disk, then booted. While not technically disk images, SimCoupe treats them as such (read-only). * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * REAL DISKS With only a few exceptions, original SAM disks can be used directly in SimCoupe under Windows 2000/XP and Linux. Even custom-formatted titles such as Lemmings and Prince of Persia can be booted directly from original disks. Windows 2000/XP require use of a free driver for complete control over the floppy drive. This is a one-time install, and must be run by a user with Administrator access rights. The driver installer is available from: http://simonowen.com/fdrawcmd/ To use real disks under Windows 2000/XP: 1) Install the fdrawcmd.sys driver, if not already installed 2) Insert your SAM disk into PC drive A: 3) Select "Open A:" from the File menu to use as SAM drive 1 4) Boot/use the disk as normal To use real disks under Linux: 1) Ensure your user has read-write access to /dev/fd0 2) Insert your SAM disk into PC drive A: 3) Press F1 to browse for a drive 1 disk 4) Browse to /dev/fd0 and click OK Note: USB floppy drives don't allow access to the floppy controller, which is needed for real disk access in SimCoupe. Only floppy drives connected to a motherboard floppy controller will work. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * FLOPPY TRANSFERS For occasional access to original SAM disks, the real disk feature is usually the most convenient option. For regular use it's better to create a disk image, and use that in SimCoupe instead. If you only need to transfer a single data file in or out of SimCoupe, use the Import Data (F4) or Export Data (Shift-F4) features instead. If you're writing disk images back to a real floppy, you must use only original double-density disks. The lower magnetic sensitivity of high-density disks make them unsuitable for double-density use, even if you cover the density hole. As a very rough guide, double-density disks are generally blue and high-density disks are black. Windows 2000/XP/2003 Use SamDisk, available from http://simonowen.com/sam/samdisk/ To create a disk image from an existing SAM floppy disk: SamDisk.exe /m a: myimage.dsk To write a disk image back to a real floppy disk: SamDisk.exe /f myimage.dsk a: The /m option copies only the used portions of the disk, which speeds up the transfer of most disks. The /f option formats the disk before writing it, which can be omitted to save time if your disk is already formatted. The current version of SamDisk (2.0) supports only MGT disk images. The next release (due soon) will also support copy-protected and other custom disk formats. Windows 98/98/Me Use Edwin Blink's Disk Image Manager, available from: http://home.wanadoo.nl/edwin.blink/samcoupe/software/diskmanager/diskmanager .htm To create a disk image from an existing SAM floppy disk: 1) Insert your SAM disk in A: 2) On the 'Sam disk' menu, select 'Load' 3) On the File menu, select "Save diskimage as..." 4) Browse to a suitable save location and name the new image To write a MGT/SAD disk image back to a real floppy disk: 1) On the File menu, select "Open diskimage" 2) Browse to find the existing image 3) Insert your SAM disk in A: 4) On the "Sam disk" menu, select "Save" Disk Image Manager supports MGT (with a .dsk extension) and SAD disk images. It can also be used to add/extract single files from both real disks and disk images. MS-DOS/FreeDOS For MGT/SAD images and imaging normal SAM disks, use Aley Keprt's utilities: http://www.keprt.cz/progs/samutils/readme.html For EDSK images and possibly copy-protected disks, use CPDRead and CPDWrite: http://www.simcoupe.org/cpdtools.zip The CPDRead utility was designed to work with Amstrad CPC disks, but works just as well for SAM disks too. The version in the archive above has been modified to read 82 tracks from both sides of the disk. Linux MGT images are directly compatible with the /dev/fd0u800 floppy device. If /dev/fd0u800 doesn't already exist, create it as root using: mknod /dev/fd0u800 b 2 120 To create a disk image from an existing SAM floppy disk: dd if=/dev/fd0u800 of=image.mgt conv=noerror,sync To write a disk image back to a real floppy disk: dd if=image.mgt of=/dev/fd0u800 conv=noerror,sync To format a new SAM disk use: fdformat /dev/fd0u800 To create a blank disk image use: dd if=/dev/zero of=image.mgt bs=512 count=1600 Custom-formatted and copy-protected disks cannot be transferred using this method, but most can still be used directly in SimCoupe by opening /dev/fd0 for floppy 1. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * HARD DISKS SimCoupe emulates 3 SAM hard disk interfaces: Atom, SD-IDE and Yarek.ATMOD. The Atom is the most commonly used, mainly because Atom's DOS (BDOS) is compatible with the original SAMDOS. The hard disk is treated as an array of floppy-sized records, giving good compatibility with existing software. Real hard disks and compact flash (CF) cards can be used under Windows 2000/XP, Linux and Mac OS X. This gives a fast and reliable way to share data between with a real SAM machine. For your safety, only existing Atom-formatted disks can be opened in SimCoupe, so be sure to format them on the real SAM first. If you don't have a real device to use, you can still work with existing hard disk images files (HDF): 1) Press F10 to open the SimCoupe options 2) In the Disks section, click "..." next to the Atom interface type 3) Browse to select an existing HDF image file to use 4) Click OK twice and you're ready to boot BDOS To create and prepare a new HDF image: 1) Press F10 to open the SimCoupe options 2) In the Disks section, click "..." next to the Atom interface type 3) Enter a new path and size in megabytes (32MB = 40 floppy records) 4) Click OK twice to create the disk and return to the emulation 5) Boot a BDOS version (1.6e is recommended) 6) With "Floppy drive" selected, press Cursor-right to view the files 7) Select "Formatter" and press Enter 8) Press Enter again, then "Y" to begin the Atom format 9) Your HDF image is now ready to use! For more details on using BDOS, visit Edwin Blink's site: http://home.wanadoo.nl/edwin.blink/samcoupe/software/bdos/bdos.htm Windows 2000/XP 1) Insert your CF card in the USB reader 2) In SimCoupe, press F10 to open the options 3) In the Disks section, click the combo-box down-arrow for the Atom 4) Select the device to use (typically \.PhysicalDrive1) 5) Click OK twice and you're ready to boot BDOS Linux The details for discovering the IDE/CF device path will depend on the Linux distribution you're using, but is usually one of the following: - For IDE hard disks, try "fdisk -l" as root to list available devices - For USB devices, try "tail -f /var/log/messages" then inserting it - Failing those, browse through the raw "dmesg | less" output Once you've found the device path: 1) In SimCoupe, press F10 to open the options 2) In the Disks section, enter the device path for the Atom hard disk 3) Click OK then Close, and you're ready to boot BDOS Mac OS X 1) Insert the CF card in your USB reader 2) When warned about an unreadable disk, click Ignore 3) Open Disk Utility and select your CF volume (orange USB icon) 4) Click Info on the toolbar, and find the Disk Identifier (such as disk1) 5) Prefix the identifier with "/dev/r" for the device path (/dev/rdisk1) 6) In SimCoupe, press Cmd-F10 to open the options dialog 7) In the Disks section, enter the device path for the Atom hard disk 8) Click OK then Close, and you're ready to boot BDOS! In most cases you only need to determine the device path once, as it will be the same the next time you insert it. It will only change if other disk devices have been added/remove in the meantime. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * PRINTING SimCoupe supports print-to-file on all platforms, making it easy to export code listings to a plain text file. Configure as follows: 1) Press F10 to open the options 2) Select the Parallel section 3) Under the Port 1 drop-down, select Printer 4) In the Printer Device section, select "File: prntNNNN.txt" 5) Click OK to accept the new settings. You can now print from most applications, and use LLIST to print BASIC listings. The output will be saved to a file in your Data Files directory, with a unique name matching the template "prntNNNN.txt". Under Windows NT4/2000/XP you can also print to a real printer by selecting the device name in step 4) above. Please note that only true SAM-compatible printers can be used, particularly if you're printing non-text output. If your device is not compatible, use the print-to-file option then open and print the text output. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * KEYBOARD INPUT The default SAM keyboard mode allows letters, digits and symbols to be typed as normal on your keyboard, with SimCoupe automatically converting them to the appropriate SAM key sequence. There's also a Spectrum mapping mode to use when running Spectrum software, and a raw mode to disable the mappings. The SAM has a keypad of function keys from F0 to F9 located on the right-side of the keyboard. For similar key positions in SimCoupe, the SAM keypad is mapped to the numeric keypad on your keyboard. You'll need to have Numlock enabled for these keys to be recognised. Don't forget that when SAM software refers to function keys, you must use the numeric keypad instead! F1 to F12 keys on your keyboard are used for emulator functions, with the default mappings shown below. Under OS X, keys F9 to F12 are used by Expose and Dashboard, so you'll need to hold the Command key in addition to the combinations below to access them. F1 = Open disk 1 Shift-F1 = Eject disk 1 Alt-F1 = New disk 1 Ctrl-F1 = Save disk 1 F2 = Open disk 2 Shift-F2 = Eject disk 2 Alt-F2 = New disk 2 Ctrl-F2 = Save disk 2 F3 = Release mouse capture F4 = Import data Shift-F4 = Export data Alt-F4 = Exit application F5 = Toggle 5:4 display Shift-F5 = Change window size F6 = Change frame-skip mode F7 = Toggle 50Hz frame-sync F8 = Toggle fullscreen F9 = Change profiler mode Shift-F9 = Save screenshot F10 = Options Shift-F10 = Debugger F11 = NMI Button F12 = Reset button Ctrl-F12 = Exit application The following emulator keys are also defined, but can't be re-mapped: PrintScrn = Save SAM screenshot in PNG format Pause = Pause emulation (screen is dimmed whilst paused) Scroll Lock = Pause emulation Ctrl-Break = Reset Keypad - = Reset Keypad + = Turbo (see below) Keypad * = NMI While paused, press Shift+Pause to advance by a single SAM frame (1/50th of a second). You can also use the screenshot feature to capture the frozen frame, though it won't be saved until SimCoupe is unpaused. Turbo mode disables the frame sync and sound, and limits the display to just 5 frames per second. This usually gives a big speed boost, which is useful for zooming through slow sections in games and demos, etc. SAM shift modifier keys and special symbols are mapped as follows: Insert = Inv Left-Ctrl = Symbol Right-Ctrl = Cntrl Left-Alt = Cntrl Right-Alt = Edit Menu Key = Edit ` (backtick) = (c) . (on keypad) = (c) The following additional combinations are also provided for convenience, since they map common keys to the equivalent function on the SAM: Native key SAM key ---------- ------- Delete = Shift-Delete Numlock = Symbol-Edit (toggles SAM BASIC keypad mode) Home = Cntrl-Left End = Cntrl-Right Page Up = F4 Page Down = F1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * DEBUGGER The debugger is unfinished, but is still functional enough to be useful. It provides code, text, data and graphics views of memory, with typical debugging functions such as single-steppinga and execution breakpoints. The debugger starts in disassembly view, highlighting the next instruction. The register panel on the right shows the current system state. Register panel The first 7 lines of the panel show Z80 register values, with changed registers display in pink text. Below it are the current interrupt mode, and the interrupt state (EI or DI). To the right of the interrupt state are 5 flags: O=midi-out, F=frame, I=midi-in, M=mouse and L=line. These letters are visible when the corresponding interrupt type is active in the status port (249). ROM0/ROM1/WPROT show whether ROM0, ROM1 or RAM write-protection are active. White text is used for the active state, and dark grey inactive. L/H/V/LE/HE are the current LMPR, HMPR, VMPR, LEPR and HEPR page numbers, with M showing the current screen mode (1-4). Scan line:cycle shows the current TV line (0 to 311) and the current cycle position within the line 0 to 383. T-diff shows the difference in tstates since the last view change. When single-stepping it represents the time for the last instruction, including CPU/ASIC contention. Stepping over a CALL will give the time for all code inside it, which provides a handy method of profiling code. The register panel is still relatively crude, and the layout is likely to be improved in the future. It will also be extended to view other hardware states, including the SAA 1099 sound chip and floppy disk controllers. Keys for all views: A = enter new view address D = disassembly view T = text view N = number view G = graphics view L = change LMPR page H = change HMPR page V = change VMPR page M = change screen mode Ctrl-0 = toggle ROM0 Ctrl-1 = toggle ROM1 Ctrl-2 = toggle RAM write-protection Ctrl-A = ex af,af' Ctrl-D = ex de,hl Ctrl-X = exx Ctrl-I = toggle ei/di Ctrl-T = toggle debugger transparency Disassembly View: U = execute until condition is met Keypad-7 = single step 1 instruction Keypad-8 = step over instruction Keypad-9 = step out of function Keypad-4 = step 10 instructions Keypad-5 = step 100 instructions Keypad-6 = step 1000 instructions Left/Right = scroll 1 byte Up/Down = scroll 1 instruction PgUp/PgDn = scroll 1 page Ctrl-Left/Right = move PC by 1 byte Ctrl-Up/Down = move PC by 1 instruction Text/Number View: Up/Down = scroll by 1 line Left/Right = scroll by 1 byte PgUp/PgDn = scroll by 1 page Graphics View: 1/2/3/4 = select screen mode Up/Down = scroll by 1 line Left/Right = scroll by 1 byte Ctrl-Up/Down = zoom in/out Ctrl-Left/Right = adjust column width by 1 byte PgUp/PgDn = scroll by 1 column Ctrl-PgUp/PgDn = scroll by 1 page Single-stepping a HALT instruction will step into the interrupt handler, assuming interrupts are enabled. Stepping over a HALT will completely execute the handler, as if stepping over a call. Step-over also recognises JP/JR instructions, and will single-step to follow the jump rather than attempting to step over it. To return to the current execution point after browsing other memory locations, press A to enter a new address and enter "pc" as the expression. Alternatively, single-step and the view will automatically return to the next instruction. To aid to debugging, conditional instructions show whether or not the condition is met by the current flags. This makes it easy to determine whether a jump will be taken, with an arrow indicating its direction. Double-clicking on an instruction in disassembly view will set an execution breakpoint for that address (no matter where it's paged in memory). There's currently no way to list existing breakpoints, or set explicit new ones. Perhaps the most powerful feature in the current implementation is the 'U' command, which executes until an expression is met. You can create complex expressions using the following operators, symbols and functions: Operators Unary: + - ~ ! = Binary arithmetic: + - * / % Logical: && || Comparison: == != < > <= >= Bitwise arithmetic: & | ^ Bitwise shift: << >> Symbols: Single registers: a f b c d e h l i r ixh ixl iyh iyl Double registers: af bc de hl af' bc' de' hl' ix iy sp pc Interrupts: ei di iff1 iff2 im Paging: lmpr hmpr vmpr mode lepr hepr rom0 rom1 wprot Display: dline sline lcycles Functions PEEK <addr> = 8-bit lookup in currently paged RAM DPEEK <addr> = 16-bit lookup in currently paged RAM IN <port> = non-zero if previous instruction accessed the port OUT <port> = non-zero if previous instruction accessed the port The '=' unary operator has a special use in expressions. Its operand is evaluated immediately, and the value inserted in the expression instead of the operand itself. The first example below shows why this can be useful. Example expressions: Break when the current value of HL changes: hl != =hl Break at the next HALT instruction: peek pc == 0x76 Break when a floppy command is written: out 224 Break when screen mode 3 is selected: mode == 3 Break when 12345 is top of stack: dpeek sp == 12345 Break when the raster is drawing screen line 0: sline == 0 Break when A, B and IXl are equal: (a == b) && (b == IXl) Execute Until breakpoints are only temporary, and cleared when the debugger is next activated, regardless of whether they were triggered. This also applies to other simple breakpoints, such as step-out and step-over. Values are displayed in hex in both disassembly and number modes, but values used in inputs and expressions can be in many different bases. The following number formats can bs used: Decimal: 12345 Character: "a" or 'a' Binary: %10101100 or 10101100b Hexadecimal: 0x1234 or 1234h or $1234 or &1234 or #1234 Octal is not supported, so leading zeroes have no special meaning. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ENHANCING THE EXPERIENCE The default SimCoupe options balanced between performance and convenience. On modern systems you can tune the performance-related settings to give an experience closer to the real machine: - On the System menu select 'TV Aspect Ratio', or press F5 to toggle from 1:1 to 5:4 mode. SAM pixels are not square and this option more closely represents the TV aspect ratio. - On the View menu, under the Border Area sub-menu, select 'Large (TV-visible)'. Non-Windows versions can select this in the Display section of the main options (F10). This increases the number of vertical border lines shown, which is closer to a real TV/monitor, and needed to view border effects in some demos. - In the Display section of the options, disable the Frame skipping option and select 'all frames' from the drop-down list. This ensures all video frames are drawn, preventing background processes disturbing the emulation. - If using a CRT monitor, check if there is a 100Hz option available for your current display mode. 100Hz is a multiple of SAM's 50Hz display frequency, and will give smoother scrolling and animation. If you're lucky enough to own a monitor that can do 50Hz it'll be even better! - Under Windows, try disabling the 'Use RGB/YUV video overlay' option in the Display section of the Options, to improve image quality. If you find it makes little difference, or performance suffers, re-enable it. If you're willing to sacrifice convenience for an even more native experience, you can also disable the following options: - "Fast boot after hardware reset", in the System section - "Fast disk access", in the Drives section - "Auto-boot disks inserted at start-up screen", in the Drives section - "Automagically boot non-bootable disks", in the Drives section * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * OPTIONS The section below describes all setting available in the Options (F10): System Main memory - the base SAM unit comes with only 256kB main memory, with an internal add-on board to boost it to 512kB. Most software titles require 512kB to work correctly. External memory - external add-on packs are available to extend memory in 1MB blocks. Programs needed to be written specially to use external memory, with only a few titles doing so. They include MasterDOS, MasterBASIC and the TopGun Demo. Fast boot after hardware reset - accelerates the cold-boot process, avoiding a few seconds delay while main memory is tested. Patch ROM for hard disk booting - applies Edwin Blink's ROM modifications to boot from an Atom hard disk. This option requires the standard built-in ROM to be active, and an Atom interface to be configured in the Disks and Drives sections. ASIC startup delay on first power-on - implements a hardware quirk that makes the ASIC unresponsive for around 50ms after first power-on. Newer SAM ROMs include a work-around loop to wait for around 250ms before booting, but old ROMs lack the delay and won't work on newer SAM hardware. Display Use DirectDraw hardware acceleration [Win32] - uses the hardware features of your video card to stretch the emulated display. You should only ever need to temporarily disable this if troubleshooting display driver issues. Use RGB/YUV video overlay [Win32] - use a special video card feature normally used for movie playback. This is well supported even on quite old hardware, giving acceleration even when DirectDraw support is minimal. This may not give the best quality output, especially on older hardware that supports only YUV. Stretch full-screen display to fill screen - scales the display up to fit the full screen resolution. Not recommended when scanlines are enabled due to banding artefacts. Limit full-screen display to 256 colours - despite SAM only having 128 palette colours, using this helps avoid the soft filtering effect most video cards apply when stretching. Recommended if you prefer a sharper display, but you also need to avoid other stretching options. Auto-skip to maintain full emulation speed - drops video frames if the emulation is struggling to match original SAM speed. With the option disabled, you can choose a fixed number of frames to display, with 'all frames' recommended for faster machines. Sound Enable Philips SAA 1099 sound chip - enables output from the internal 6-channel sound chip, used for music and sound effects. Enable Spectrum-style beeper - enables output from the basic port 254 speaker bit, as used by 48K Spectrum software and the BASIC BEEP/ZAP/POW/ZOOM commands. Stereo sound output - the internal sound chip outputs stereo, but disabling this option will combined all channels to mono output. Buffering - controls the size of internal buffer used for sound preparation. Smaller buffers give less lag between generated effects and when you'll hear them, but make the emulator less able to cope with changes in running speed caused by other running programs. The default should work for most people, but increase it if you're having problems. Drives D1 - select whether floppy drive 1 is present in the left-hand bay. This is the drive used by disk booting from the ROM. D2 - select whether floppy drive 2 is present in the right-hand bay. You can also select to have an Atom HDD interface connected to this bay, which will require a real device or HDF image file to be selected for it on the Disks options page. Fast disk access - automatically accelerates the emulation speed when any disks are active, to speed up disk loading. The sensitivity level controls how quickly it should return to normal running speed once disk access terminates. Programs that spend time processing data read from disk will require lower sensitivity to load at maximum speed, but this will also risk missing the first couple of seconds of music/intro after loading. Ask before saving disk image changes - prompts for confirmation before saving modifications back to disk images when they are ejected. This doesn't apply to changes saved manually using Ctrl-F1/F2. Auto-boot disks inserted at startup screen - automatically boot from disks inserted into drive 1 when at the stripey boot screen. Automagically boot non-bootable disks - detects booting from an unbootable disk and temporarily replaces the boot disk with either an internal DOS image or a user-specified disk. Once DOS has booted the original disk is restored and the "auto*" boot process continued (if required). Helps avoid the disk-switching hassle when dealing with data-only disks. Disks Floppy drive 1/2 - selects the disk image to insert into virtual drive 1 or 2. Pressing F1/F2 during the normal emulation gives quick access to disk insertion. The drop-down list gives the option of physical floppy drives, if available. Atom Hard Disk - selects an HDF image or physical device (from drop-down list) to use as the Atom hard disk device by BDOS. SD-IDE Hard Disk - selects an HDF image or physical device to use for the SD Software IDE interface by HDOS. YAMOD.ATDISK Hard Disk - selects an HDF image or physical device to use for Yarek Adamski's IDE interface. For the 3 hard disks, select '...' to browse for an existing image or create an new HDF image. To create a new one simply enter a size and new filename then click Create. For your safety, you can only select physical devices that contain an existing BDOS or HDOS filesystem. You must prepare the disk on a real SAM before use with SimCoupe. Paths Floppy disk images - default directory used when prompting for floppy disk images Hard disk images - default directory used when prompting for hard disk images ROM images - default directory used when prompting for alternative ROM images Screenshots / Data files - default location used for saving screenshots, printer output, and other data files. If no path is given the default location is either the directory containing the SimCoupe program [Win32], the user's preferences directory [OS X] or the user's home directory [Linux/BeOS/QNX/...]. If a disk is already in the drive, browsing starts from the location of the previous file. To browse from the default location simply eject the old disk first. Input Mapping mode - in the default SAM Coupe keyboard mode, letters and symbols are automatically mapped to the key sequence required to generate the same symbol on the SAM. For example, pressing Shift-0 on a PC keyboard generates ')', but Shift-0 on the SAM generates '~'. SimCoupe detects that Shift-0 would generate ')', and converts it to Shift-9 to generate the same symbol on the SAM. If you require a literal Shift-0, select the raw mapping mode first. The Spectrum mode is useful when using an unmodified Spectrum ROM, or other Spectrum software. Use Left-Alt for Cntrl key - maps the Left-Alt key to the Cntrl key on the SAM keyboard, in addition to the Right-Ctrl key. Left-Alt is located in a similar keyboard position to SAM's Cntrl key. Note: enabling this option blocks normal Windows menu combinations, such as Alt-F for the File menu. However, you can still press and release Alt to activate the menu, then press F to open the file menu and navigate as normal. Use Alt-Gr for Edit key - maps the Right-Alt key to the Edit key on the SAM keyboard. Alt-Gr is located in a similar keyboard position to SAM's Edit key. Use keypad-subtract key for reset - allows the '-' key on the numeric keypad to be used as a SAM reset button, in addition to F12. The key is conveniently located near Num-9, used for SAM's F9 key to BOOT disks. Use function keys for SAM keypad - swaps the functionality of the function keys and the numeric keypad. By default the keyboard function keys are used for emulator features, and the numeric keypad is mapped to SAM's own function keypad. Enable mouse interface - select to use your own mouse to control an emulated SAM mouse. Note: most s1 oftware will detect the presence of the mouse interface on boot-up, so you should enable this BEFORE you load it. Swap mouse buttons 2 and 3 - the default button mapping is L/M/R to SAM buttons 1/2/3, but with this option enabled it's 1/3/2. Few titles require all 3 buttons, and you may prefer to use the larger right mouse button for SAM's button 2. Joystick [Win32] Joystick 1/2 - selects the Windows device to use for SAM joystick 1 (keys 6,7,8,9+0) and/or joystick 2 (keys 1,2,3,4+5). If your device isn't listed, check the Game Controllers option in Control Panel to ensure your device is working correctly. Dead-zone - controls the dead zone around the centre point of analogue devices, to prevent small unwanted movements from being seen. This has no effect with digital devices. Parallel Port 1/2 - selects the device to connect to the virtual printer port. With Printer selected you have a choice of printing to a file or a real printer device. Mono-DAC emulates a 7-bit mono sound device, and EDdac/SAMdac a 6-bit stereo device. The latter is highly recommended for use with Printer device [Win32] - if Printer is selected above, this is the file or device to use for output. The "File:" option auto-generates a unique file to hold the output, and saves it to your Data Files path. "Printer:" entries are real printer devices to use for output, which must be compatible with a real SAM - don't expect any old printer to work! Auto-flush print data - specifies the idle time needed at the end of a print job before flushing the printer output. When printing to a file this will close the current file, so new output will go to a different file. When printing to a real device this will ensure the final page is flushed out. If you experience problems with single jobs being split due to delays mid-print, select 'Disabled' and flush the end of the job using the Tools menu option [Win32]. MIDI [Win32] MIDI function - select whether MIDI OUTput is connected to a Windows MIDI device. Used by a few utilities for music playback to an external keyboard. MIDI Out - the Windows device to use for output. This will usually default to a sound card synthesiser, but could also be an external keyboard connected to your PC's sound card. MIDI In - not currently supported, but may be used for network support in future versions. Misc SAMBUS clock - the most common clock hardware interface, as used by MasterDOS and BDOS. DALLAS clock - advanced clock hardware, supported by BDOS. Advance SAM time relative to real time - link passing time to real time rather than emulated time. By default the SAM clock is synchronised to real time on startup, and advances by 1 second for each 50 emulated frames. This prevents programs running under emulation from detecting any time discrepancy. With this option enabled the SAM clock will always match real time, regardless of how much time passes in the emulator. Pause the emulation when inactive - automatically pause when SimCoupe is no longer the active application, or is minimised. Show disk drive activity lights - enables on-screen LEDs in the top left of the display, showing when the floppy drive motor is active. Floppy LEDs are green, hard disk LEDs are orange. Show status messages - enables the display of status text in the bottom right of the display. This are used to indicate the effect of various user actions, such as ejecting disks and changing runtime options. Profiling statistics - shows emulator performance in the top-right of the display. By default this shows the percentage of SAM running speed (ideally 100%) and the current display frame rate (ideally 50fps). You can also display a breakdown of how much running time was used for CPU emulation, graphics drawing, sound generation, display blitting/stretching and idle time remaining for other system tasks. FnKeys [Win32] Here you can redefine the default function key mappings, as shown in the KEYBOARD INPUT section. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS SimCoupe supports the following command-line options, which override setting in the configuration file: -sync <bool> Synchronise to 50Hz (default=yes) -frameskip <int> Video frames skipping: 0=auto (default), 1=none, or 2-10 to show every 2nd to 10th -scale <int> Windowed mode scaling: 1=50%, 2=100%, 3=150% -ratio5_4 <bool> Stretch display width to 125% (default=no) -scanlines <bool> Show vertical lines for a TV effect -scanlevel <int> Scanline intensity percentage (default=75%) -mode3 <bool> Show only odd pixels in low-res (default=no) -fullscreen <bool> Start in full-screen mode (default=no) -depth <int> Colour depth for full-screen (default=16) -borders <int> Border size: 0=none, 1=small, 2=normal, 3=TV-visible, 4=full TV scan area -stretchtofit <bool> Stretch fullscreen display (default=no) -overlay <bool> Use video overlay if available (default=yes) -hwaccel <bool> Enable hardware acceleration (default=yes) -greyscale <bool> Greyscale mode (default=no) -filter <bool> Bilinear filter in OpenGL mode (default=no) -rom <path> 32K custom ROM (blank for default v3.0) -hdbootrom <bool> Enable Atom HDD ROM patches (default=no) -fastreset <bool> Skip SAM power-on memory test (default=yes) -asicdelay <bool> ASIC delay on first start (default=yes) -mainmemory <int> Main memory size in kB: 256 or 512 (default) -externalmem <int> External memory size in MB: 0 (default) to 4 -drive1 <int> Drive 1: 0=none, 1=floppy -drive2 <int> Drive 2: 0=none, 1=floppy (default), 2=Atom -turboload <int> Fast disk access sensitivity (default=15) -saveprompt <bool> Prompt before saving changes (default=yes) -autoboot <bool> Auto-boot inserted disks (default=yes) -dosboot <bool> Automagically boot DOS (default=yes) -dosdisk <path> Custom DOS boot disk (blank for SamDos 2.2) -stdfloppy <bool> Assume real disks are normal (default=yes) -disk1 <path> Disk image file for drive 1 -disk2 <path> Disk image file for drive 2 -atomdisk <path> Atom hard disk image or device path -sdidedisk <path> SD-IDE hard disk image or device path -yatbusdisk <path> YAMOD.ATBUS hard disk image or device path -floppypath <path> Default floppy image path -hddpath <path> Default hard disk image path -rompath <path> Default ROM image path -datapath <path> Default save path for screenshots/printouts -keymapping <int> Keyboard mapping mode: 0=raw, 1=SAM, 2=Spectrum -altforcntrl <bool> Use Left-Alt for SAM Cntrl key (default=no) -altgrforedit <bool> Use Alt-Gr for SAM Edit key (default=yes) -keypadreset <bool> Use minus on keypad for reset (default=yes) -samfkeys <bool> Use keypad for SAM Fn keys (default=no) -mouse <bool> Mouse interface enabled (default=no) -mouseesc <bool> Esc to release mouse capture (default=yes) -swap23 <bool> Swap mouse buttons 2 and 3 (default=no) -joydev1 <string> Joystick device for port 1 (default=none) -joydev2 <string> Joystick device for port 2 (default=none) -deadzone1 <int> Joystick 1 deadzone percentage (default=20) -deadzone2 <int> Joystick 2 deadzone percentage (default=20) -parallel1 <int> Parallel port 1 device: 0=none (default), 1=printer, 2=mono DAC, 3=stereo DAC -parallel2 <int> Parallel port 2 device: 0=none (default), 1=printer, 2=mono DAC, 3=stereo DAC -printerdev <string> Printer device name or path -printeronline <bool> Printer online (default=yes) -flushdelay <int> Printer flush delay in seconds (default=2) -midi <int> 0=none (default), 1=midi synth [Win32] -midiindev <string> MIDI-in device name/path (future) -midioutdev <string> MIDI-out device name/path -sambusclock <bool> SAMBUS clock (default=yes) -dallasclock <bool> DALLAS clock (default=no) -clocksync <bool> Clock synchronise to real time (default=yes) -sound <bool> Sound enabled (default=yes) -saasound <bool> SAA 1099 sound chip enabled (default=yes) -beeper <bool> Spectrum-style beeper enabled (default=yes) -stereo <bool> Stereo sound (default=yes) -latency <int> Sound latency: 1=best, 5=(default), 20=worst -drivelights <int> Floppy drive LEDs: 0=none, 1=top, 2=bottom -profile <int> Profiling stats: 0=off, 1=simple (default), 2=detailed percentage, 3=detailed timings -status <bool> Show status messages (default=yes) -pauseinactive <bool> Pause emulator when application is inactive? Key: <bool> 0 or 1, true or false, yes or no <int> an integer value in the range shown next to the parameter <string> string of characters, in "quotes" if it contains spaces <path> file/dir path, in "quotes" if it contains spaces To restore the defaults settings, close SimCoupe and delete SimCoupe.cfg [Win32], ~/.simcouperc [Linux], or "~/Library/Preferences/SimCoupe Preferences" [OS X]. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * THANKS Allan Skillman - Father of the original SimCoupe Dave Laundon - CPU contention and sound enhancements Dr Ian Collier - Z80 core from his xz80 Spectrum emulator Dave Hooper - Phillips SAA 1099 chip emulator Dr Andy Wright - Permission to distribute the SAM ROMs Sam Lantinga - Simple DirectMedia Library (SDL) Shawn Hargreaves - Allegro games programming library Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler - zlib compression library Special thanks to Andrew Collier, Edwin Blink, Frode Tennebo, Steve Parry-Thomas and Robert Wilkinson, for their active roles during development. Thanks also to the sam-users mailing list, and everyone who sent feedback. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * LINKS SimCoupe Homepage: http://www.simcoupe.org/ SimCoupe project page (latest source code): http://sourceforge.net/projects/simcoupe/ World of Sam archive: http://www.worldofsam.org/ Wikipedia entry for the SAM Coupe (and for more links): http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Coupe AmgiaOS 4 port: http://drhirudo.hit.bg * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * DISCLAIMER THIS PROGRAM AND DOCUMENTATION ARE PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, NOT EVEN THE IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. BY USING THE PROGRAM, YOU AGREE TO BEAR ALL RISKS AND LIABILITIES ARISING FROM THE USE OF THE PROGRAM AND DOCUMENTATION AND THE INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE PROGRAM AND THE DOCUMENTATION.
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